Previously I posted an article, Belgian LANR patents, covering the LANR patents of former chemist and patent attorney Jan Van den Bogaert. Mr. Van den Bogaert spent his career at AGFA, the Belgian multinational corporation that has long specialized in photography-related technology. He filed, and had granted, numerous LANR-related patents, which that for the last 20 years have not been available for review to those who did not speak Flemish, a Belgian variation of the Dutch language. The previous article included a link to the PDF file to two of those patents that had been translated into English. In this article I will publish for your review the third of these patents.
In the last article, it was said that a third patent had been sequestered and publication delayed by the Belgian Ministry of Defense for a period of 2 years. It was stated that this was applicable to patent BE1003296, the patent presented here. After having further conversation and receiving further documentation from Mr. Van den Bogaert. it has come to my attention that this is not entirely accurate. In fact, ALL 3, patents were sequestered and prevented from publication for a period of 2 years according to the edicts of the Belgian Ministry of Defense. This restriction was in fact first applied to one of the patents covered in the last article, patent BE1002780, and subsequently applied to patent BE1002781 and to this patent BE1003296 because they both referenced the first patent. Said letter from the Belgian Ministry of Defense had not been translated into English at the time of the last article but Mr. Van den Bogaert has provided a translation for inclusion with this article, and reads thusly:
I have the honour of informing you that the demand for a Belgian patent filed on 21/4/1989 under the application number 08900444 is the object of an inquiry of the Ministry of Defense by application of article 4 of the law of January 10, 1955 concerning the publication and application of inventions and factory secrets regarding the defense of the territory or the security of the State.
In accordance of article 5 item 1 of said law, it is forbidden to you from now on, except for explicit permission, the invention for which you have filed a patent application to publish its contents and especially to file a patent application in a foreign country or to assign a licence.
The grant of a Belgian patent or the possible transfer of the patent application to the European Patent Office or International Office of the World Organization for Intellectual Property will be postponed or retarded if such is necessary in view of the examination of the Ministry of Defense.
You will, as fast as possible, be informed of the decision that will be taken in consensus by the ministers of Economic Affairs and of State Defense what kind of measures will be taken – or will not be taken – provided by articles 2 and 3 of the law of January 10, 1955 depending the case, such at last:
six months taken from the filing date of the application, when it concerns an application for a Belgian patent, or
before the expiration of a period of four months taken from the filing date of the application when such concerns the filing of a European patent, or
before the expiration of the thirteenth month taken from the date of filing when such concerns an international patent application according to the Treaty of Cooperation for Patents (PCT).
The authorized civil servant,
While the letter states time periods of 6 months and 13 months wherein the patent could be prohibited from publication, license and disclosure, the actual period was over 2 years! BE1002780and BE1002781 were not published until June 4, 1991 and BE1003296 was not published until February 18, 1992.
So, blocked by the Belgian government at the outset, and then lost to obscurity over time because “cold fusion” had become discredited thoroughly by 1991, and the applications and patents was never published in English, these works were lost to in time so to speak…until now.
As I stated previously, I do not have the technical expertise to vouch for the usefulness of any of these. However, as before, I do present these document to readers to acknowledge Mr. Van den Bogaert’s participation and contributions to this field. His experience with the Belgian Ministry of Defense also illustrates a point that Tom Baccei and I have made frequently on this site, i.e. military entities, regardless of nation, DO actively take an interest in blocking and/or slowing down this technology. There has been much criticism of this contention but here we have documented evidence that illustrates the point.
It is also may hope that someone amongst the readers of this site may be able to take some of the information here and be able to produce a workable device from it. If not that, at least take the information provided to adjunct their own theories and knowledge of LANR. If you are such a person, remember this is a chemists approach to the technology. Many of the pioneers in cold fusion have been chemists of some ilk and this is a fact that has never sat well with physicists, who could consider fusion at any temperature their domain. In his presentation at CERN recently, Francesco Celani made allusion to this, stating something to the effect that physicists have often felt uncomfortable doing the “kind of math” that chemists use to arrive at their conclusions. I think that an insightful and perhaps significant assertion.
I must note that although all of this patent application and the ones previously reviewed were submitted shortly after the 1989 “cold fusion” announcement at UU, Mr. Van den Bogaert in fact had a patent granted entitled “Nuclear Energy Generation by Fusion Constituents in Non-fusionable Envelope Using Interial Containment by Implosion of Envelope” (BE892579) as far back as March of 1982, and an additional patent was granted in September of 1986. So, in short, Mr. Van den Bogaert has been at this quite a while.
As Coulomb explosion is the postulated mechanism for the proposed reaction as proposed in the current patent being reviewed, here is a brief definition of this process per the Encyclopedia of Concise Science and Technology (2nd Edition, p. 489)
Coulomb explosion: A process in which a molecule moving with high velocity strikes a solid and the electrons that bond the molecule are tom off rapidly in violent collisions with the electrons of the solid; as a result, the molecule is suddenly transformed into a cluster of charged atomic constituents that then separate under the influence of their mutual Coulomb repulsion.
Coulomb explosions are most commonly studied using a particle accelerator, normally employed in nuclear physics research (Van de Graaff generator, cyclotron, and so forth), to produce a beam of fast molecular ions that are directed onto a solid-foil target. The Coulomb explosion of the molecular projectiles begins within the first few tenths of a nanometer of penetration into the foil, continues during passage of the projectiles through the foil, and runs to completion after emergence of the projectiles into the vacuum downstream from the foil. Detectors located downstream make precise measurements of the energies and charges of the molecular fragments together with their angles of emission relative to the beam direction. The Coulomb explosion causes the fragment velocities to be shifted in both magnitude and direction from the beam velocity.
Coulomb explosion experiments serve two main purposes. First, they yield valuable information on the interactions of fast ions with solids. For example, it is known that a fast ion generates a polarization wake that trails behind it as it traverses a solid. This wake can be studied in detail by using diatomic molecular-ion beams, since the motion of a trailing fragment is influenced not only by the Coulomb explosion but also by the wake of its partner. Second, Coulomb-explosion techniques can be used to determine the stereochemical structures of molecular-ion projectiles.
As a final note before patent BE1003296 is presented, I would point out that both this patent and the ones published on this site earlier have two different numbers. One number is the patent application number and the other the number assigned when the patent was actually granted. For this particular patent, the application number was 9000034. For BE1002780 the application was 8900444 and for BE1002781 the application number was 8900607. I mention this because mention is made of previous patents in this application.
So, without further delay, I present for the first time in English, Belgian BE1003296. (Link to downloadable .pdf at the end of this article).
The present invention relates to nuclear fusion of fusionable matter with the aid of a solid substance wherein said matter can be absorbed and/or by means of which it can be enveloped.
By Fleischmann and Pons in Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, April 1989 – Elseviers Publishing Company – a method is described wherein at a hydrogen-absorbing palladium electrode nuclear fusion reaction is achieved with deuterium ions obtained by electrolysis of D2O. Said fusion reaction which occurs at relatively low temperature is called “cold fusion”.
In non-published Belgian patent application 8900444 filed April 21, 1989 a method for nuclear fusion of fusionable matter is described, wherein said matter in the form of a gas is adsorbed to and/or absorbed in a hydrogen absorbing metal or metal alloy, while said metal or alloy is kept at negative electrostatic potential during and/or after the adsorption and/or absorption of said fusionable matter without making contact with an electrolyte, and said gas either or not is ionized before its adsorption and/or absorption. According to an embodiment the fusionable matter is applied as a gas in a space containing at least two electrodes at opposite polarity, wherein the negatively charged electrode can adsorb and/or absorb the fusionable matter, and wherein the potential difference between said electrodes is sufficiently large to ionize the fusionable matter and to achieve the fusing of its positive ions.
In the non-published Belgian patent application 8900607 filed June 5, 1989 a method for the production of nuclear energy is described, wherein nuclear fusionable matter is absorbed in the crystal lattice of a hydrogen absorbing material having a negative electrical polarity, characterized in that said fusionable matter is absorbed in a hydrogen-absorbing material being in the form of separate particles that are negatively electrostatically charged and wherein after the absorption of said fusionable matter the electrical polarity of said particles is changed from negative to positive.
In the periodical Science, vol. 244, June 2, 1989, p. 1040 has been reported that with deuterium under pressure neutrons can be produced in palladium and titanium without electric current (Frascati experiment reproduced in Los Alamos by Howard Menlove). In said experiment titanium curlings were put in a cylinder in contact with deuterium gas under a pressure of 20 to 50 atmosphere. After cooling the cylinder down to 77 K (-196 °C) with liquid nitrogen the cylinder was warmed up gradually to room temperature. On reaching -30 °C bursts of neutrons coming from inside the cylinder were detected. Such should point to the proceeding of a nuclear reaction.
In the Belgian newspaper “De Standaard”, Dec. 3/4, 1989 has been reported that Japanese researchers should have noticed the production of neutrons when using palladium electrodes in deuterium gas while applying a much higher current than used in electrolysis of heavy water. The neutron production reached 20,000 times the concentration of normal background level, lasted only one minute and started immediately after applying a high electrical voltage. Thereupon within a period of several hours the neutron production dropped to ten times the background level. The neutron production is ascribed to a nuclear fusion reaction. A heat production was not measured.
The above published methods are up till now not suited for the production of energy on an industrial scale.
It is one of the objects of the present invention to provide a method for nuclear fusion with industrial utility and minimal radioactive contamination of the environment.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will appear from the following description and drawing.
The present invention provides a method for nuclear fusion of fusionable matter, wherein said matter is absorbed in an electrically conductive material and/or is enveloped with a shell of electrically conductive material, whereupon the conductive material is connected with the positive electrode of a current source, whereby electrons of the conductive material flow away and in said material a positive surplus charge is created which makes that on the positive fusionable nuclei of the fusionable matter a pressure sufficiently strong for nuclear fusion is reached.
According to an embodiment the positive voltage put to the electrically conductive material that has absorbed fusionable matter is in the range of 1000 to 3 x 10^6 volt.
According to a preferred embodiment said electrically conductive material that has absorbed said fusionable matter is a metal or metal
alloy being in crystalline form and having the property of absorbing hydrogen gas.
The absorption of fusionable matter into said conductive material proceeding prior to its electrical charging can be carried out according to one embodiment at low temperature and high pressure as described in the above mentioned periodical Science. However, the absorption of fusionable matter in said conductive material can take place likewise at room temperature, either or not by electrolysis.
According to a first embodiment described already in said Belgian patent application 8900444 and appropriate also for use in the present invention the absorption of fusionable matter proceeds by bringing the matter into plasma form in a space containing at least one electrode, wherein positively charged fusionable ions of the plasma are absorbed. Said electrode consists of or contains a metal or metal alloy that can absorb hydrogen and is electrostatically negatively charged, while – another electrode is at positive potential.
A plasma is an ionized gas that contains practically equal amounts of positive particles (ions) and electrons and which is susceptible to a magnetic field.
According to a second embodiment also described in said last mentioned Belgian patent application the absorption of fusionable matter is realized by introducing said matter in a space containing at least two electrodes at opposite potential (polarity), wherein the negatively charged electrode is capable of absorbing said matter and wherein the voltage difference between said electrodes is sufficiently large to ionize the fusionable matter.
In said embodiments relating to the absorption of fusionable matter the potential difference between said electrodes may be a lot higher than is usual in electrolysis, e.g. in the range of from 40 to 3 x 10^6 volt.
The voltage may be applied continuously or pulsating using therefor known apparatus, e.g. a direct current generator.
Suitable nuclearly fusionable matter is e.g. deuterium and tritium or mixtures thereof. In admixture with said matter atomic hydrogen may be present. Hydrogen can be brought into atomic form by activation with palladium (ref. The Chemical Elements and Their Compounds, by N.V. Sidgwick, Vol. II, (1950) Oxford At the Clarendon Press, p. 1557).
The transformation into plasma of the fusionable matter to be fused is carried out e.g. with heat and/or electrical discharge and/or high frequency electromagnetic energy.
The ionization to produce a plasma can be carried out in a space connected to the fusion reactor or between electrodes in the reactor. In addition to deuterium also lithium and/or borine can be brought into plasma form. A plasma is in general, but not necessarily, formed at low pressure. Suitable methods for forming a plasma are described e.g. in Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Physics, J. Thewlis – Pergamon Press, New York, Supplementary Volume 1 (1966), p. 242-246.
The electrode material at which the nuclear fusion takes place consists of or contains a metal absorbing hydrogen in an exothermic way. The absorption in such metal increases with gas pressure and drops with increasing temperature.
Examples of such metals are : titanium, zirconium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum and palladium [ref. Inorganic Chemistry by E. de Barry Barnett and C.L. Wilson - Longmans Green and Co., London (1955) p. 108]. Further are mentioned hydrogen absorbing rare earth metals, e.g. yttrium, wherein hydrogen can be absorbed up to YH2 which substance as is the case with the metal is electrically conductive [ref. Mc Graw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, 2nd ed. Sybil P. Parker - Editor in Chief - (1989), p. 2043].
Endothermically hydrogen absorbing metals, e.g. nickel and iron are likewise useful at high temperature, e.g. at 800 °C. The “sorption” of hydrogen as a function of temperature and pressure to Pd is described in the above mentioned book “Inorganic Chemistry”, whereas the sorption of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium to titanium is described in JACS 78 (1956), 5155-5159.
According to a particular embodiment said metals are present on a carrier material, e.g. applied in vacuum deposited form. The carrier material is e.g. carbon or a metal that has a good thermal and electrical conductivity and optionally slows down or absorbs fast neutrons.
The hydrogen-absorbing electrode can be porous, e.g. consists of sintered metal but exists preferably in the form of separate particles, e.g. with a diameter of 0.001 micron to 10 cm.
According to an embodiment the metal that absorbs the fusionable matter is used in the form of separate particles which individually function as an electrode such as in a polarograph (ref. analytical chemistry). The separate particles can be dispersed in a dielectric liquid wherein they form a suspension or in a gas wherein they form an aerosol, in which they have a particle size from 0.001 to 100 micron.
The present invention is with regard to the embodiment wherein the fusionable matter is absorbed in an electrically conductive material, e.g. metal or metal alloy, illustrated by means of a drawing.
In said drawing, Figure 1A represents a transversal section and Figure 1B a side view of a nuclear reactor suited for application according to the present invention.
Referring to Figure 1B the reactor chamber 1 has two oppositely situated openings 2 and 3. Opening 2 is the inlet for the introduction of fusionable matter in the form of an aerosol, e.g. deuterium gas that contains in dispersed form palladium or titanium particles wherein deuterium has been absorbed. Opening 3 is the exhaust for the non-reacted gas and gaseous reaction products. Opening 4 at the bottom of the reactor chamber serves for the discharge of the solid matter (palladium or titanium dust). In the reactor, as in a Cottrell-apparatus, electrodes are present at high voltage. The positive electrodes at high voltage are the wire grids 5 electrically connected to a positive electrode plate 6 which is insulated electrically with respect to the reactor wall 7 and is connected to a positive high voltage main 8, e.g. at 30,000 to 2,000,000 volt. The conductive reactor wall 7 is connected to the earth 9 and herewith also the metal plates 10 which are positioned parallel to the positively charged wire grids 5. The palladium or titanium particles entering the reactor chamber 1 through inlet 2 give away their electrons to the wire grids 5 and become strongly positively charged. Hereby in the palladium or titanium particles a strong electrostatic pressure is exerted on the thus formed positive deuterium nuclei which thereby become fusing. The pressure can be thus strong that a “Coulomb explosion” takes place. The positively charged metal particles are pushed away from the positively charged wire grids 5 towards the smooth metal plates 10 being preferably cooled internally with liquid, and at which the positively charged matter is discharged.
The solid matter slides down towards the exit-opening 4 for periodical removal of metal dust. During the fusion of deuterium tritium is formed which desorbs from the heated palladium and/or titanium particles.
The notion “Coulomb explosion” is explained in the already mentioned book : Mc Graw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, 2nd ed. Sybil P. Parker – Editor in Chief – (1989), p. 489. In a Coulomb
explosion the atomic elements of an atom group, e.g. crystalline particle (cluster), are suddenly separated by the fast removal of electrons, so that remaining positive particles, e.g. crystal lattice ions, are withdrawn from each other under the influence of the Coulomb repulsion. Such brings about an inwardly directed pressure, that just like in inertial laser fusion gives rise to nuclear fusion of fusionable matter confined in the conductive material, e.g. colloidal particle from an aerosol.
Examples of Cottrell-apparatus for dust removal of e.g. smoke are described in the Dutch book “Apparaten voor de Chemische Industrie” by G. Wertwijn en E.H.C. Barkhuijsen, deel I, 2de druk, (1956), p. 50-51, in Rompp – Chemie Lexikon, 6. Auflage – Franckh’sche Verlagshandlung, Stuttgart (1966), p. 1266, and in “Kolloidchemie” von Joachim Stauff, Springer Verlag, Berlin-Göttingen – Heidelberg (1960), p. 534, wherein has been described how an aerosol is first conducted through a chamber containing a wire system at high voltage (12,000 to 15,000 volt) and then through a chamber with many at 2000 to 5000 volt alternatively charged and earthed plates whereon the particles are deposited.
In a practical embodiment according to the present invention into said apparatus an aerosol of of Pd-particles containing absorbed deuterium is introduced in a carrier gas substantially consisting of deuterium. The carrier gas can be present under more than atmospheric pressure in order to inhibit as much as possible electrical breakdown. The palladium particles are of colloidal size, e.g. have a particle diameter of 0.01 micron . It is possible by positively charging Pd-particles of said diameter to withdraw from them practically all valency electrons (these from the Pd and those from the absorbed deuterium atoms) by applying a positive voltage of about 5 x 10^5 volt. Using Pd-particles with particle size of 0.1 micron the voltage for practically complete withdrawal of the valency electrons is about 6 x 10^6 volt. Hereby not only electrons at the surface of each colloidal particle but also electrons belonging to the more centrally located crystal lattice ions of the Pd-particles are withdrawn.
According to Gauss’s law only the surface of a conductor is electrostatically charged, but by using sufficiently small conductive particles (atom clusters) and by applying thereto a sufficiently high positive voltage also the centrally located conductivity electrons can be withdrawn producing thereby an electrostatic pressure on the absorbed
positive deuterium nuclei (deuterons) to make them fusing. High voltages of the order of a few MV can be generated with a van de Graaff generator.
Palladium is less electronegative (electronegativity being +2.2) than hydrogen (electronegativity being +2.1) so that by applying a positive voltage first the electrons of the absorbed deuterium will be withdrawn and then the valency electrons of palladium. On working however, with the above mentioned high potential differences it does not matter which kind of hydrogen absorbing metal is used and therefore even good results can be obtained e.g. with yttrium that after absorption of hydrogen remains electrically conductive. Yttrium and cerium are available in nature in larger quantities than lead. The crystal structure of yttrium is hexagonal close-packed as is the case with titanium, and the crystal structure of cerium is face-centered cubic as is the case with palladium.
According to an alternative embodiment the conductive particles which have absorbed fusionable matter are charged negatively, so that with regard to the apparatus of Figure lA the wire grids are charged, negatively and the plates and reactor wall are earthed. The proceeding of nuclear fusion is in that case based on electrostatic orbital enlargement and fusion of atomic orbitals of fusionable matter as explained in the Belgian patent applications 8900444 and 8900607.
According to another embodiment of the present invention nuclear fusion is carried out by using Coulomb explosion having fusionable matter confined in a shell of conductive material that is charged positively up to a sufficient strength to result in Coulomb explosion. In said embodiment the fusionable matter being e.g. in liquid or solid form, e.g. by cryogenic cooling, is confined in a metal skin.
In a particular embodiment the fusionable matter, e.g. deuterium and tritium, is confined in a microcapsule with metallic outer wall comparable to the “pellets” used in inertial laser fusion.
By the application of a sufficiently large positive voltage, i. e. positive charging, e.g. by bringing the pellets in contact with a plate or wire at positive high voltage (e.g. 10^4 to 10^7 volt) electrons are withdrawn very quickly from the metal shell and Coulomb explosion takes place, resulting in a strong centrally directed pressure on the fusionable matter which thereby is compressed and fuses. In the nuclear fusion method operating with said electrically conductive shell, the shell material has not necessarily to absorb the fusionable matter, but may consist of a metal or metal alloy having absorption power for the fusionable matter.
According to an embodiment the fusionable matter is separated from the metal shell by a dielectric (i.e. electrically insulating) inter-wall made e.g. from insulating resin or glass, so that during the positive charging of the microcapsule wall no electrons are withdrawn from the fusionable matter, which thereby itself is not subjected to Coulomb explosion. The insulating inter-wall serves as a so-called “pusher” in the compression.
According to another embodiment the fusionable matter is enveloped with an envelope of superconductive material as described in laid-open Belgian patent 892579 which relates to a variant of inertial laser fusion. In Figure 5 of said patent an apparatus is illustrated wherein fusion pellets having a built-in superconductive ring or coil serving as energy-accumulator is used for starting the nuclear fusion of the confined fusionable matter. Said apparatus can have for application in the present fusion process a target plate axially arranged in the centre of the reactor. Onto said target plate being at high voltage, e.g. 0.1 to 10 MV, the microcapsule, preferably at small angle (grazing angle smaller than 20°) are injected into the apparatus. Said target is cooled internally with water to produce steam by the heat set free in the nuclear fusion.
Literature concerning inertial laser fusion and microcapsule; composition is available e.g. in Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 64, no. 10, October 1976, p. 1460-1482 and in Applied Optics, June 1, (1981), p. 1902-1925.
In a particular embodiment of nuclear fusion according to the present invention the inertial compression of enveloped fusionable matter proceeds by thermal explosion of the micro-capsule wall, e.g. by laser irradiation, combined with the compression pressure exerted by Coulomb explosion of said wall that is charged positively with a voltage high enough to withdraw therefrom a substantial part of the conduction electrons.
A method for nuclear fusion of fusionable matter, wherein said matter is absorbed in an electrically conductive material and/or is enveloped with a shell of electrically conductive material, whereupon the conductive material is connected with the positive electrode of a current source, whereby electrons of the conductive material flow away and in said material a positive surplus charge is created which makes that on the positive fusionable nuclei of the fusionable matter a pressure sufficiently strong for nuclear fusion is reached.
A method according to claim 1, wherein said electrically conductive material that absorbs said fusionable matter is a metal or metal alloy in crystalline form having the property of absorbing hydrogen gas.
A method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the absorption of fusionable matter takes place at low temperature and high pressure.
A method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the absorption of fusionable matter takes place by electrolysis of D20.
A method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the positive voltage applied to the electrically conductive material that has absorbed fusionable matter is in the range from 1000 to 3 x 10^6 volt.
A method according to claim 5, wherein said voltage is applied continuously or pulsating.
A method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the fusionable nuclear matter is deuterium either or not applied in admixture with tritium.
A method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said electrically conductive material consists of or contains a metal capable of absorbing hydrogen in an exothermic way.
A method according to claim 8, wherein said electrically conductive material consists of or contains at least one of the following elements : titanium, zirconium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum and palladium.
A method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said electrically conductive material consists of or contains yttrium.
A method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the conductive material that has absorbed fusionable matter consists of sintered metal.
A method according to any of the claims 1 to 10, wherein the conductive material that has absorbed fusionable matter consists of separate particles having a diameter from 0.001 to 10 cm.
A method according to claim 12, wherein said particles are available as an aerosol with particle diameter in the range from 0.001 to 100 micron.
A method according to claim 13, wherein the nuclear fusion is carried out in a Cottrell-apparatus at the positively charged electrode(s).
A method according to claim 1, wherein the fusionable matter is confined in liquid or solid form in a microcapsule having a metallic outer wall.